Saturday, May 23, 2020

Corporate Social Responsibility And Its Legal Requirements

Introduction In today s economic and social environment, issues related to social responsibility and sustainability are gaining more and more importance, especially in the business sector (Webfinance. 2014). Business goals are inseparable from the societies and environments within which they operate. Whilst short-term economic gain can be pursued (Catalyst Consortium. 2002), the failure to account for longer-term social and environmental impacts makes those business practices unsustainable. In our current society, the Global Compact asks companies to embrace, support and enact, within their sphere of influence, a set of core values in the areas of human rights, labor standards, the environment and anti-corruption (Corporate Watch. 1996 –†¦show more content†¦2014).An example of CSR being implemented would be that business would contribute the community by giving away charity such as money or clothes. Another example would be of having an environmental clean-up in the area of the b usiness located. Business sustainability depends on organizations taking into account the social and environmental consequences of their actions and decisions whether it is today or in the future There is increasing pressure on organizations to make a POSITIVE contribution to society or reduce their NEGATIVE impact on society. Even around the world the governments are also moving towards the enforcement of certain parts of CSR. The most focused part of CSR is regards to the protection of the environment. Many businesses in the past have primarily concerned with increasing shareholders’ value. Shareholders are people who own a part of the business and share in its profits (G. Katherina. 2010). In big corporations, this could potentially include thousands of people who receive dividends and who hold shares in the business (Smallbizconnect. 2014). Legal requirements There are laws in CSR that give basic human rights to become recognised. Being a good CSR company includes respecting the human rights of those who come into contact with the corporation in any way. This might be in a direct contact (for example, employees or customers), or indirect contact (for example, workers of suppliers, or

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Spm Biology, Physic, Chemistry - 7539 Words

STPM/S(E)960 PEPERIKSAAN SIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA (MALAYSIA HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE) PHYSICS Syllabus Second Edition This syllabus applies for the 1999 examination and thereafter until further notice. However the form of examination for Physics stated in this booklet was first implemented in the 2001 examination as announced through a circular, Pemberitahuan MPM/2(AM)/2000. Teachers/candidates are to advised to contact Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia for the latest information about the syllabus. ____________________________________________________________ _______________ MAJLIS PEPERIKSAAN MALAYSIA 1 ISBN 983-2321-20-4  © Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia 2002 First Published (Second Edition) 2002 Reprinted 2003 All rights†¦show more content†¦Kinematics and dynamics (9 double periods) 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Rectilinear motion Motion with constant acceleration Projection Newton’s laws of motion Conservation of momentum Elastic and non-elastic collisions Explanatory notes Candidates should be able to (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) define displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration derive and use equations of motion with constant acceleration sketch and use the graphs of displacement-time, velocity-time, and acceleration-time for the motion of a body solve problems on projection without air resistance understand qualitatively the effects of air resistance on the motion of bodies in air state Newton’s law of motion understand that a body has inertia use the formula F = m d( v ) d( m ) or v dt dt state the principle of conservation of momentum and show the conservation of momentum by means of Newton’s law of motion define impulse as ∠«F dt and show awareness that impulse is equivalent to the change of momentum distinguish between elastic collisions and non-elastic collisions solve problems regarding linear collisions between particles 2 3. Work,Show MoreRelatedScience As A Nano Scientist1427 Words   |  6 PagesA Nano scientist specializes in areas of science such as chemistry, physics, mathematics, and molecular biology. Becoming a Nano scientist can take up to nine years of schooling depending on what degree is desired. Whether it be two years of college for an associate’s degree, four years for a bachelor’s degree, six years for a master’s degree, or nine years for a doctorate’s degree. Once all is said and done the wage of a Nano scientist is very beneficial ranging anywhere from $40,000 to $100,000Read MoreComparison of Uk and Malaysia Education6844 Words   |  28 PagesScience Curriculum ( biology, physic and chemistry ) for upper secondary school which based on Nuffield O-Level Curriculum was implemented. 1980 : Integrated Curriculum For Secondary School had been legislated. 1983 : Integrated Curriculum For Primary School was fully implemented. 1989 : Integrated Curriculum For Secondary School had been used by all secondary school. 1999 : Smart School had been introduced and PEKA had replaced the Paper 3 examination for Biology, Physic and Chemistry. 2003 : ScienceRead MoreSho - Safety Health Officer2596 Words   |  11 PagesENTRY REQUIREMENT(S): i. Possess a minimum of SPM/SPMV/MCE or equivalent with at least a Grade Three Pass. General certificate (SAP) or lower than Grade three will not be accepted. ii. For SPM/SPMV after year 2000, a minimum of 6C for Bahasa Melayu, English, Mathematics AND minimum 8E for Science/Physics/Chemistry/Biology AND Pass other 2 subjects in 1 certificate/examination or combination iii. Applicants must attach ONE (1) certified true copy of SPM/SPMV/MCE Certificate/Diploma/Degree AND IdentificationRead Morereport of tuition centre7546 Words   |  31 Pagestutoring for courses in. The tuition service for primary school is for the preparation for them to sit in Penilaian Menengah Rendah(PMR) and Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia(SPM) LOWER SECONDARY UPPER SECONDARY Mathematics Science English Bahasa Melayu Mathematics Bahasa Melayu English SCIENCE STREAM Additional mathematics Physics Chemistry Biology LITERITURE CLASS Science Principle accounting Economy For all students, Esses Tuition Centre uses the Smart learning system. This unique problem solving approachRead MoreStress and Academic Performance4818 Words   |  20 PagesAcademic Affair Division (HEA) UiTM Negeri Sembilan. The GPA was based on the students’ academic performance in their final examination results for that particular semester. The results comprised of five compulsory subjects namely Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology and English Language. Table 1 represents the students’ Grade Point Average (GPA) in the final examination of the respective semester. Table 1: The Students Academic Performance CGPA Frequency Percent 3.50 - 4.00 37 24.0 3.00 -

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Business Data collection Free Essays

Business Report: Data collection involves administering instruments, as well as gathering and organizing responses for analysis. A well-planned data collection strategy is critical to obtaining reliable, consistent and useful information. Throughout the process you will: 1. We will write a custom essay sample on Business: Data collection or any similar topic only for you Order Now Identify the purpose and audience 2. Develop or select your instrument 3. Pilot test your instrument, and 4. Implement your instrument. †¢One of Dixon’s strengths was that it was able to hold onto a large portion of the pencil market for almost a century.    Their weakness was that they were not able to compete with the lower priced pencils being imported from China. †¢They did have lots of opportunities, though. Because of globalization, Dixon was able to move the  manufacturing  of their pencils to Mexico and China. †¢Their threats come from China and other countries being able to produce pencils cheaper than Dixon could make them in the United States. †¢Dixon Ticonderoga was one of the oldest public companies in the United States. Dixon was the second largest pencil manufacturer in the country . Problem for Dixon Ticonderoga, began in the early 1990s when Chinese manufacturers entered the market with low-priced pencils of good quality and began dumping the US market. †¢Also, the United States government could not save Dixon from foreign competition. They lobbied against the Chinese and even had large tariffs put on their pencils, and still the Chinese pencils were cheaper and better made than those of Dixon’s. †¢All of their attempts failed at cutting the cost of  manufacturing  a pencil in the United States. How to cite Business: Data collection, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Essay About Drawing On What You Have Learned About City Road Example For Students

Essay About Drawing On What You Have Learned About City Road The purpose Of this assignment is to compare and contrast the social order of City Road with a local road to demonstrate how order is made and is continually repaired over time. Abnegation Street, has changed considerably over the past 50 years, from a quiet street of individually owned shops such as, Halyard Jeweler, Benefit footwear, and only one a big convenience store, Today, you will find fewer individually owned and many more big name high street shops, such as Primary and Tests Express. Firstly, I will compare Abnegation Street, and how it has changed to City Road. Abnegation Street used to be the main thoroughfare to the town centre, with a tram running down the centre of the street creating evincible order, nowadays the street remains invisibly ordered but is used differently as it is now impolitely pedestrians. It is both a daytime shopping zone and a night time social space. Meanwhile City Road has changed from a simple country road to a busy town through road, however similarities still exist with Abnegation Street as both are now shopping and social spaces, as City Roads cross car showrooms, have been replaced by shops, cafes, takeaways and restaurants designed for a wide range of people. With the changes in use, have come the changes in visible order, Abnegation Streets use changes throughout the day, in a very similar way to City Road. Shopping is the daytime occupation, with people eating and drinking in the cafes, visible order is demonstrated by adherence to the societies rules as people queue in orderly fashion to purchase goods. Disruption of social order occasionally happens when for example, shoplifting occurs, however this is deterred by CATV keeping invisible order and is repaired by the presence of security guards preventing further incidents. Social order is present at night in Abnegation Street as well as in City Road, at night the shops close, as the takeaways, pubs and clubs open. Young people then use Abnegation Street for entertainment rather than for shopping. Although, Abnegation Street brings in different types of people during the different times of day, different shops and venues are aimed at certain groups of people, The younger generation use fast food takeaways or go to socialite at the pubs at night, whilst in the Depose Aromas Surer, from Taste bud cafe © talks about how mostly elderly customers regularly come back to his cafe © during the day, because they feel secure in there this could be to do with the types of people using the streets during a day the elderly or school children (Making Social Lives on City Road DVD, 2009, scene 3). Most invisible social order at night in Abnegation Street is maintained by the use of CATV, Whilst visible night time order is maintained by the presence Of club bouncers, the police and local community support officers. Young people may see the presence Of the police and community support workers as a deterrent to them having fun, whilst the shopkeepers rely on the police to maintain social order and protect their property from drunken or accidental bad behavior. Social order is also affected by the influx of big business; this is demonstrated in the DVD, which shows how the arrival of Tests Express to City Road results in the closure of smaller businesses. There are inequalities between local shops and the big named supermarkets on both streets. On Abnegation Street there are two very dominant stores, Tests Express again as well as Marks and Spencer, Both of these shops have a large variety of products on offer at competitive prices; these stores also have a wider range of goods for the convenience of the customers, .uf9343bec55cbd05ea97c66b93f37048f , .uf9343bec55cbd05ea97c66b93f37048f .postImageUrl , .uf9343bec55cbd05ea97c66b93f37048f .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uf9343bec55cbd05ea97c66b93f37048f , .uf9343bec55cbd05ea97c66b93f37048f:hover , .uf9343bec55cbd05ea97c66b93f37048f:visited , .uf9343bec55cbd05ea97c66b93f37048f:active { border:0!important; } .uf9343bec55cbd05ea97c66b93f37048f .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uf9343bec55cbd05ea97c66b93f37048f { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uf9343bec55cbd05ea97c66b93f37048f:active , .uf9343bec55cbd05ea97c66b93f37048f:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uf9343bec55cbd05ea97c66b93f37048f .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uf9343bec55cbd05ea97c66b93f37048f .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uf9343bec55cbd05ea97c66b93f37048f .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uf9343bec55cbd05ea97c66b93f37048f .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uf9343bec55cbd05ea97c66b93f37048f:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uf9343bec55cbd05ea97c66b93f37048f .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uf9343bec55cbd05ea97c66b93f37048f .uf9343bec55cbd05ea97c66b93f37048f-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uf9343bec55cbd05ea97c66b93f37048f:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: My Testimony - The End of the Road EssayIn City Road, like in Abnegation Street, the smaller business owner reports adverse affects, an example of this is Colic Butler (the described how he had been affected, saying that Tests moving in close to his store has resulted in a reduction in trade. On the positive side the opening of well known chains can have a positive effect on remaking society, and social ordering, as it can bring about more jobs, and encourage people to use the area more resulting in other places such as cafes, restaurants being busier. As Georgian Blakely point out some people gain from the reshaping and some people lose (Making Social Lives, 009, Scene 5) . In conclusion, social order will always need to adapt, change and be continually restructured, and repaired to meet societys requirements. The effects of a single change can have a massive impact on a street and the people that it involves. This can be seen in the effect that pediatricians had on Abnegation Streets main uses, it is also clear to see that the slightest change can have a massive impact on the social ordering Of the area. This can be applied to any street in the world. 814 WORDS Bibliography, * Blakeley, G.. Brimley, S. ,Clarke. Aerogram, P Silva, E. And Taylor, S. (2009) Learning Companion 1, Introducing the social sciences, Milton Keynes, The Open University. * The street (2009) Making Social Lives , Milton Keynes, The Open university. What have you enjoyed about starting this module? Have enjoyed getting back into studying again, after leaving college, Im definitely looking tankard to the rest of this course. What have you found difficult? Time management is my main difficulty, juggling working and writing an assignment but Im sure will find this easier as time goes on.

Tuesday, March 24, 2020

17 SAT Hacks to Help You Ace the Exam

17 SAT Hacks to Help You Ace the Exam SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Standardized tests have a reputation for presenting questions in formats that are tricky and confusing. Wouldn't it be great if there was a way to get past all that and take a shortcut to the correct answer? This article provides expert SAT hacks to help you solve SAT questions that might otherwise leave you stumped! Can You Actually â€Å"Hack† the SAT? Well, yes and no. Quick tidbits of advice like the ones in this articlecan prevent you from squandering your potential and teach you how to work with the test to earn the best score possible. However, you can’t rely on shortcuts to arrive at an excellent score if you’re missing knowledge that is critical for understanding essential aspects of the test. Be warned that these SAT hacks, though helpful,are no substitute for in-depth studying, especially if you struggle with the content at a fundamental level.If you think you need prep that addresses deeper weaknesses, you should check out our complete guide on how to study for the SAT. Overall SAT Hacks Here are some tricks you can use on any part of the SAT to help you get through the section and earn the most points possible. #1: Answer Every Question (No Matter What) The SAT doesn’t have a guessing penalty, so you should fill in an answer bubble for every question even if you have no clue what the correct response is.If you find yourself with a few questions left in the section and only 30 seconds on the clock, you should provide random answers for all of them.You never know if you’ll get lucky and answer one or two correctly, and even if you don’t, your score won’t be any lower than if you had left the questions blank. #2: Be Prepared for the Format Knowing what to expect is half the battle on the SAT.When you sit down to take the test, you want everything to look familiar so you can avoid mistakes triggered by stress. At the very least, you shouldreview the timing and structure of the exambefore test day.Taking practice tests with appropriate time constraints is the best thing you can do to alleviate confusion on this front. #3: Don’t Linger on Hard Questions Getting stuck on one question for too long can do serious damage to your performance on the SAT, especially considering the fact that there are only four sections.If you have no idea how to solve a math problem or can’t seem to settle on one choice for a writing or reading question, skip it and move on.You can come back to it after you make it through the rest of the section. #4: Practice Managing Anxiety Especially if you’re hoping to earn a really high score, coming across a problem that stumps you can kill your momentum on the test.To avoid this pitfall, you need to establish coping mechanisms to deal with these moments of doubt without letting them affect your overall performance. Mindfulness techniques are a great tool to have in your arsenal. Check out this article for more tips on how to reduce test anxiety! Imagine you're not taking the SAT. Instead, you're floating on a serene lake under a beautiful blue sky. You still have to stay awake, though. Seriously, don't fall asleep. SAT Reading Hacks Here are a few more SAT hacks that are specific to the content and format of the SAT Reading section. #5: Plan a Passage Reading Strategy Don’t jump into the test without deciding how you plan to approach passages on the Reading section.Are you more comfortable with skimming, or do you like to read the questions first and then go back and reference the passage to locate the answers? Complete apractice Reading section with appropriate time constraints so you can figure out what feels most comfortable for you and makes for the fewest struggles with time management. #6: Take Advantage of Find the Evidence Questions Find the evidence questions on the SAT are a gift because they help make the correct answers to the previous questions clearer.If none of the answer choices for a find the evidence question make sense in conjunction with your answer to the previous question, this should prompt you to double-check your reasoning.These questions remind you that you need to choose answers to Reading questions based on concrete statements made in the passage.If you made any unfounded assumptions, find the evidence questions will alert you to your mistakes. #7: Engage With the Content It’s much easier to get through the Reading section if you develop an interest in what the passages have to say.You’ll also retain more information from the passage when you move onto the questions. To get yourself interested, envision a scenario in which it's absolutely critical for you to remember what the passage says so you can explain it to other people. Imagine that you'll be presenting the information in the passage to another group of students after you finish reading it. "Notice anything different about me? Teehee" Denise, I accept that love is love, but you just met the SAT Reading section a week ago. YOU'VE BEEN HURT TOO MANY TIMES. SAT Writing Hacks These hacks will give you some insight into the way Writing questions work and how you can answer them more efficiently. #8: When in Doubt, Choose the Most Concise Answer The shortest answer is often the best answer on the Writing section because good writing consists of saying what needs to be said without any unnecessary fluff.Super wordy answers are usually not the ones you want.Of course, this doesn’t hold true for every single question, but it’s a solid rule of thumb if you’re stuck. #9: NO CHANGE Answers Are Just Like Other Choices Often, NO CHANGE answers are wrongfully viewed as more likely or less likely options than other answer choices in the Writing section. In fact, they’re just as likely to be correct as any of the alternative options. Don’t be afraid to pick NO CHANGE if you’ve double checked your reasoning and determined that it’s the correct choice. #10: Get Rid of Duplicate Answers Sometimes, questions on the Writing section will have answer choices that are so similar to one another that choosing one over the other wouldn’t make any functional difference in the sentence structure. Thismeans you can get rid of two choices in one fell swoop.If they’re essentially the same answers, then neither of them is unique enough to be the correct choice.Here's an example: In this case, C and D are functionally the same answers. They both indicate that the author is about to make a statement that goes against what was said in the previous sentence or sentences. Both C and D can be eliminated (the answer is NO CHANGE for this question). Sometimes answer options are just two halves of the same bad berry. This strawberry actually looks really good though. SAT Math Hacks The SAT has two Math sections, one taken without the use of a calculator and one taken with the use of a calculator.On both of these sections, you can use the following SAT hacksto improve your performance. #: Don’t Ignore Diagrams In many cases, the test will provide a diagram to help illustrate a math problem.These diagrams exist for your benefit, so make sure you pay attention to all the information they give you.Does your answer mesh with the way the diagram looks?If you’re asked to find a dimension of a shape, make sure the relative sizes make sense. Your final answer shouldn’t seem out of whack with what the diagram is telling you. #12: Know the Formulas Although the SAT does provide important formulas at the beginning of each of the Math sections, you’ll be a much more efficient test-taker if you have the formulas memorized.It's a waste of time to keep flipping back to the beginning of the section whenever you think you need a formula to solve a problem. For studying purposes, here'sa list of all the formulas you might need for the SAT Math section. #13: Underline Your Goal To keep yourself on track in the Math section, underline the value that you need to find (and circle it in the diagram if applicable).It's frustrating to confidently solve a math problem and later realize that you had to take your calculations one step further to actually get the answer the question wanted. In many cases, the wrong answers will be answers that you might get if you didn’t complete the solution process or solved for the incorrect quantity. #14: Plug in Answers If you have no idea how to solve a math problem, one way to get around that is just toplug in the answer choicesuntil you find the correct solution.This oftentakes longer than solving aproblem with algebra, but if you have time, it can be a useful strategy. Plugs, not drugs. This is probably a t-shirt by now, right? SAT Essay Hacks The essay is optional on the SAT, but many colleges still require it. Hereare some ways you can improve the quality of your essay with minimal effort. #15: Provide a Clear Thesis The essay graders are looking for an easy way to interpret your essay and understand the points you’re making.The best way to tap into this is to write a strong thesis that falls at the end of the introductory paragraph.Reread the central claim of the passage that’s described in the prompt, and transpose it into your thesis statement. Make sure you sketch out the structure of your essay in your thesis by listing three examples of major techniques the author uses to support his or her argument. #16: Write a Good Intro and Conclusion The introductory and concluding paragraphs are extremely important because graders typically pay the most attention to these parts of your essay.The introduction gives graders a preview of the quality of the rest of the essay and the way you’ll structure your ideas.It also contains your thesis, which is the most critical sentence in the entire essay and is what ties all of your points together. #17: Write More Than One Page Try to make your essay around two pages long.The graders don’t have a specific quota for the number of words they want to see, but they expect you to provide a response that fully addresses the most important components of the author’s argument.It’s almost impossible to do this if your response only takes up one page.Consider whether you’ve really explained what’s going on in the passage, and if necessary add more evidence to make your essay complete. Also, make sure your writing is legible. If you bring a quill to the test, expect some backlash. Conclusion: How to Hack the SAT "Hacking" the SAT is possible to an extent, but you need to understand the content fairly well before you can employ most of these tips successfully. To recap, here's a list of all the SAT hacks listed in the article organized by section: Overall Answer every question Be prepared for the format Don't linger on hard questions Learn to manage anxiety Reading Develop a passage reading strategy Use find the evidence questions to your advantage Engage with the content Writing Choose the most concise answer Remember that NO CHANGE answers are no more or less common than other options Eliminate duplicate answer options Math Don't ignore the diagrams Underline your goal Know the formulas Plug in answer options Essay Provide a clear thesis Write a strong introduction and conclusion Write at least two pages If you follow all these pieces of advice and combine them with in-depth studying, you'll be well on your way to an awesome score on the SAT! What's Next? If you think you need more structured guidance in your studying for the SAT, check out our list of the best prep books released this year. Khan Academy now provides free SAT prep services. Learn more abouthow it works and how to get the most out of these resources. There are also other ways to practice for the SAT online that you may not know about. Read all about the best websites to use for SAT prep! Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep classes. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160 points or more. Our classes are entirely online, and they're taught by SAT experts. If you liked this article, you'll love our classes. Along with expert-led classes, you'll get personalized homework with thousands of practice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step, custom program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Try it risk-free today:

Friday, March 6, 2020

Free Essays on European Influence

There were many circumstances that lead to European discovery. One of the most significant was the search of new trading routes to different countries for certain goods. These goods were coming to Europe by Islamic traders. The most lucrative market was the spice trade. Most of the exotic spices used in Europe came from the Middle East, such as cardamom, India, cinnamon, or China cloves. They were brought to Europe by Islamic traders, who themselves had spread around the world in order to facilitate trade. The eastern coast of Africa, for instance, was one long line of Muslim cities that primarily served as conduits for trading goods from the interior of Africa. Muslims had also set up settlements in India and China; they did not, however, make it to the Americas. Because it was expensive, the European merchants and mercantile countries wanted to eliminate the middlemen and trade directly with the regions supplying these goods. In particular, Portugal and Spain, the states that carried out the bulk of trade in spices, wanted to find a route to the spice-producing countries so that they could trade directly with those countries. Portugal headed south and east along the western coast of Africa hoping to find the southern terminus of Africa so that ships could sail around Africa to India and China. Spain would take the opposite route, foolishly sailing west to find a shorter and more direct route to China and India. This western route was not short and certainly wasn't direct si... Free Essays on European Influence Free Essays on European Influence There were many circumstances that lead to European discovery. One of the most significant was the search of new trading routes to different countries for certain goods. These goods were coming to Europe by Islamic traders. The most lucrative market was the spice trade. Most of the exotic spices used in Europe came from the Middle East, such as cardamom, India, cinnamon, or China cloves. They were brought to Europe by Islamic traders, who themselves had spread around the world in order to facilitate trade. The eastern coast of Africa, for instance, was one long line of Muslim cities that primarily served as conduits for trading goods from the interior of Africa. Muslims had also set up settlements in India and China; they did not, however, make it to the Americas. Because it was expensive, the European merchants and mercantile countries wanted to eliminate the middlemen and trade directly with the regions supplying these goods. In particular, Portugal and Spain, the states that carried out the bulk of trade in spices, wanted to find a route to the spice-producing countries so that they could trade directly with those countries. Portugal headed south and east along the western coast of Africa hoping to find the southern terminus of Africa so that ships could sail around Africa to India and China. Spain would take the opposite route, foolishly sailing west to find a shorter and more direct route to China and India. This western route was not short and certainly wasn't direct si...

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Soot Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Soot - Essay Example The hydrocarbon fuel molecular constitution is associated with a six carbon atom types which might be obtained, for complex hydrocarbon mixtures, such as, transportation fuels, from the proton nuclear magnetic resonance (HNMR) measurements. Soot derived from ethanol, benzene, and acetylene have dissimilar reactivity and structural order. Soot is usually produced by combusting engines, flickering candle lights, and campfires. The process of soot formation is actually very challenging to comprehend and describe. However, with regard to the demand of for much lower particulate emissions an in depth understanding is absolutely necessary. Most types of combustion systems emit particles into the atmosphere that are a major hazard because of their toxicity to the human health, especially the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. The smaller particles less 100nm in size are regarded as the most hazardous. This is because they can penetrate deep into the lungs. The proposed project aims to determine the theory of formation, structure of (via image analysis) and impact of soot, as well as assess the differences between optical and electron microscopy. Soot comprises of agglomerates with a diameter of up to several hundred nanometers. They are made of fine structures that comprise of spherical primary molecules. Soot formation commences with the pyrolysis of fuel molecules along the formation of polcyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Vander Wal & Tomasek, 2004). The most crucial precursor in the formation of higher hydrocarbons is acetylene (C2H2). Ladommatos and Balachndran (2011) assert that the molecular structure of various hydrocarbons influence soot formation. Gulder (2007) adds that the fuel structure also impact on the soot structure. Vander Wal and Tomasek (2004) showed that the soot particles that are generated by ethanol, benzene, and acetylene have different reactivity and structural order. Soot derived